Part 2 - Parenting psychoeducation / Cognitive development

Updated: Mar 17

Welcome again, this time to the second post in these parenting series. Here will discuss the theories of cognitive development by Piaget and Erikson.

If you are still still here, I think we already have a mutual understanding in the first post that information is power. We will cover a lot of information in the following two posts. In the next post Part 3 we will focus on attachment theory and different attachment styles and at last, parenting styles.

Let's arm ourselves with information as a parent.

I will try my best not to make this post lecturelike, dry and boring. I want you to bear with me if this sounds too raw at the beginning. I promise we will ground and applicable to life it eventually in the next two posts, if not this.


I will be drawing in a lot from various resources as well as two very helpful workshops that I attended last week. First workshop I attended was the Psychoeducational workshop for parents by Skills for Change agency* delivered by Narges Khazraei. Second one was EveryMind agency * on Building Resilience in Children by Dr. Mariko Estrada. I found both of them very helpful in different ways and use the information I gained to construct this post.


We will cover three main topics in this post;

  1. Theories of cognitive development by Piaget and Erikson,

  2. What is attachment? Different attachment styles

  3. Parenting styles


Let's start with the first topic.


Theories of cognitive development by Piaget and Erikson


Jean Piaget's Theory and Stages of Cognitive Development

Piaget is a Swiss psychologist who studied cognitive development of children and his theory suggests children move through four stages of mental development.


These four stages are;

  • Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years

  • Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7

  • Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11

  • Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up

Piaget believed that older and younger children think differently. He also suggested that children think different than adults and they act as little scientists as they observe the world and their actions then do experiments to see different possible outcomes or consequences. They learn through observing and understanding the consequences of these experiments and derive mental operations, as he called them, which eventually lead to their mental development.


Let's look into different intellectual development stages he mentioned;


  • Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years

This stage is characterized by motor activity and understanding the world through movement, sensations and visual stimuli. A lot of experimenting and trial & error goes into this stage of development. The goal of this stage is establishing object permanence which means, knowing that an object still exist even if it can't be seen.

  • Preoperational stage: ages 2 to 7

The next stage, preoperational stage is characterized by language, memory and imagination development. Children at this stage start to play pretend play and role play. It is still hard for children at this stage to think logically and they are egocentric, meaning that they have difficulty thinking outside of their own view and understanding other people's point of view or feelings. The goal of this stage is the language development and symbolic thinking. AT this stage children start to attach meaning to objects and think about things symbolically meaning that a word or an object can be used to represent something other than itself.

  • Concrete operational stage: ages 7 to 11

At this stage, children start to think logically and understand the concept of a conversation. They become less egocentric and start to manipulate symbols in a more logical and methodical way. The goal of this stage is the development of operational (logical) thought, which means for a child to start solving problems inside their heads even though they might not have encountered them in the physical world.

  • Formal operational stage: ages 12 and up

The last stage that Piaget defined is the formal operational stage in which children start to use symbols and thinking in a more abstract and logical way. They can think abstractly and try to deal with hypothetical problems and . The goal of this last stage is development of scientific reasoning and ability to deal with several potential solutions to a problem and develop their own hypothesis based on previous knowledge


To summarize, Piaget summarized four different stage of mental development for children which had their unique goals. Now that we know the Piaget's theory let's move on to Erickson's.

Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

Erik Erickson's theory on development focuses on psychosocial aspects - which means both psychological and social aspects. He defined eight stages in his theory as follows:

  • Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust

  • Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

  • Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt

  • Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority

  • Stage 5: Identity vs. Confusion

  • Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

  • Stage 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation

  • Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair


Erikson suggested that personality developed in stages which builds upon one another. According to him, every stage presented a unique psychological conflict which can be either lead to better development of a psychological quality or failing to do so.


Depending on the way people dealing with conflict successfully or not, they would either emerge with psychological strength and mastery or fail to the necessary skills and a strong self which could lead to feelings of inferiority.


In the following chart, each psychosocial stage and the unique conflict it presents are summarized. For the sake of clarity and time, I will focus on explaining first three stages only in this article and I encourage you to read further from here,