MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They have been implicated in several fundamental biological processes including development, differentiation, apoptosis and stem cell maintenance. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs also play roles in cellular transformation and carcinogenesis by acting either as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Recent studies introduced MIR376 as an important microRNA family for cancer formation and progression. The MIR376 family is located on human chromosome 14 and it has several members containing identical or similar seed sequences. Biological roles of family members were studied in different cancer settings, including gliomas, leukemia, breast and ovarian cancers. Furthermore, two MIR376 family members, namely MIR376A and MIR376B were implicated in the regulation of macroautophagy (autophagy herein). Since autophagy dysregulation underlies various diseases including cancer, it is essential to understand the role of the MIR376 family in this context. In this article, we summarize the miRNA-cancer connection, and review accumulating data about the involvement of the MIR376 family in cancer biology.